Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.0
AccessibleRich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.0
W3CRecommendation 20 March 2014
James Craig, Apple Inc.
Michael Cooper, W3C
Lisa Pappas, Society for Technical Communication
Rich Schwerdtfeger, IBM
Lisa Seeman, UB Access
Please check the errata for any errors or issues reported sincepublication.
This document is also available as a single page version.
See also translations.
Accessibility of web content requiressemantic information about widgets, structures, and behaviors, in order toallow assistive technologies to convey appropriate information to persons withdisabilities. This specification provides an ontology of roles, states, andproperties that define accessible user interface elements and can be used toimprove the accessibility and interoperability of web content and applications.These semantics are designed to allow an author to properly convey userinterface behaviors and structural information to assistive technologies indocument-level markup. This document is part of the WAI-ARIA suite described inthe WAI-ARIA Overview.
Status of thisDocument
This section describes the status of thisdocument at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede thisdocument. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of thistechnical report can be found in the W3C technicalreports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.
This is the WAI-ARIA 1.0 W3C Recommendation from the Protocols &Formats Working Group of the Web AccessibilityInitiative. The Working Group created an implementation report that shows the exit criteria have been met. The Director approvedtransition to Recommendation after reviewing this report and after AdvisoryCommittee vote which unanimously supported publication. Some editorial changeshave been made since the Proposed Recommendation: removing suggestions of"RDF ID reference", changing the spelling of "programming"to "programing", correcting the spelling of "assistive",and updating some references to latest versions.
This document has been reviewed by W3CMembers, by software developers, and by other W3C groups and interestedparties, and is endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is astable document and may be used as reference material or cited from anotherdocument. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention to thespecification and to promote its widespread deployment. This enhances thefunctionality and interoperability of the Web.
To comment on this document, send email email@example.com (comment archive). Comments received on the WAI-ARIA 1.0Recommendation cannot result in changes to this version of the specification,but may be addressed in errata or future versions of WAI-ARIA. The WorkingGroup may not make formal responses to comments but future work undertaken bythe Working Group may address comments received on this document.
This document was produced by a groupoperating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverablesof the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. Anindividual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believescontains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information inaccordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.
The disclosure obligations of theParticipants of this group are described in the charter.
- Status of This Document
- 1. Introduction
- 1.1. Rich Internet Application Accessibility
- 1.2. Target Audience
- 1.3. User Agent Support
- 1.4. Co-Evolution of WAI-ARIA and Host Languages
- 1.5. Authoring Practices
- 1.6. Assistive Technologies
- 2. Using WAI-ARIA
- 3. Normative Requirements for WAI-ARIA
- 4. Important Terms
- 5. The Roles Model
- 5.1. Relationships Between Concepts
- 5.2. Characteristics of Roles
- 5.2.1. Abstract Roles
- 5.2.2. Required States and Properties
- 5.2.3. Supported States and Properties
- 5.2.4. Inherited States and Properties
- 5.2.5. Required Owned Elements
- 5.2.6. Required Context Role
- 5.2.7. Accessible Name Calculation
- 5.2.8. Presentational Children
- 5.2.9. Implicit Value for Role
- 5.3. Categorization of Roles
- 5.4. Definition of Roles
- 6. Supported States and Properties
- 6.1. Clarification of States versus Properties
- 6.2. Characteristics of States and Properties
- 6.3. Values for States and Properties
- 6.4. Global States and Properties
- 6.5. Taxonomy of WAI-ARIA States and Properties
- 6.5.1. Widget Attributes
- 6.5.2. Live Region Attributes
- 6.5.3. Drag-and-Drop Attributes
- 6.5.4. Relationship Attributes
- 6.6. Definitions of States and Properties (all aria-* attributes)
- 7. Implementation in Host Languages
- 7.1. Role Attribute
- 7.2. State and Property Attributes
- 7.3. Focus Navigation
- 7.4. Implicit WAI-ARIA Semantics
- 7.5. Conflicts with Host Language Semantics
- 7.6. State and Property Attribute Processing
- 8. Conformance
- 8.1. Non-interference with the Host Language
- 8.2. All WAI-ARIA in DOM
- 8.3. Assistive Technology Notifications Communicated to Web Applications
- 8.4. Conformance Checkers
- 9. References
- 10. Appendices
- 10.1. Schemata
- 10.1.1. Roles Implementation
- 10.1.2. WAI-ARIA Attributes Module
- 10.1.3. XHTML plus WAI-ARIA DTD
- 10.1.4. SGML Open Catalog Entry for XHTML+ARIA
- 10.1.5. WAI-ARIA Attributes XML Schema Module
- 10.1.6. HTML 4.01 plus WAI-ARIA DTD
- 10.2. Mapping WAI-ARIA Value types to languages
- 10.3. WAI-ARIA Role, State, and Property Quick Reference
- 10.4. Acknowledgments
- 10.4.1. Participants active in the PFWG at the time of publication
- 10.4.2. Other ARIA contributors, commenters, and previously active PFWG participants
- 10.4.3. Enabling funders